Set - 3

Question 1 :

How can I require that fields be filled in, or filled in correctly?

Answer :

Have the server-side (e.g., CGI) program that processes the form submission send an error message if the field is not filled in properly. Ideally, this error message should include a copy of the original form with the original (incomplete or incorrect) data filled in as the default values for the form fields. The Perl module provides helpful mechanisms for returning partially completed forms to the user.
In addition, you could use JavaScript in the form's ONSUBMIT attribute to check the form data. If JavaScript support is enabled, then the ONSUBMIT event handler can inform the user of the problem and return false to prevent the form from being submitted.
Note that the server-side program should not rely upon the checking done by the client-side script.

Question 2 :

How do I change the title of a framed document?

Answer :

The title displayed is the title of the frameset document rather than the titles of any of the pages within frames. To change the title displayed, link to a new frameset document using TARGET="_top" (replacing the entire frameset).

Question 3 :

How do I link an image to something?

Answer :

Just use the image as the link content, like this:

<a href=...><img src=... alt=...></a>

Question 4 :

Should I end my URLs with a slash?

Answer :

The URL structure defines a hierarchy similar to a filesystem's hierarchy of subdirectories or folders. The segments of a URL are separated by slash characters ("/"). When navigating the URL hierarchy, the final segment of the URL (i.e., everything after the final slash) is similar to a file in a filesystem. The other segments of the URL are similar to the subdirectories and folders in a filesystem.
When resolving relative URLs (see the answer to the previous question), the browser's first step is to strip everything after the last slash in the URL of the current document. If the current document's URL ends with a slash, then the final segment (the "file") of the URL is null. If you remove the final slash, then the final segment of the URL is no longer null; it is whatever follows the final remaining slash in the URL. Removing the slash changes the URL; the modified URL refers to a different document and relative URLs will resolve differently.
For example, the final segment of the URL is empty; there is nothing after the final slash. In this document, the relative URL all.html resolves to (an existing document). If the final slash is omitted, then the final segment of the modified URL is "html". In this (nonexistent) document, the relative URL all.html would resolve to (another nonexistent document).
When they receive a request that is missing its final slash, web servers cannot ignore the missing slash and just send the document anyway. Doing so would break any relative URLs in the document. Normally, servers are configured to send a redirection message when they receive such a request. In response to the redirection message, the browser requests the correct URL, and then the server sends the requested document. (By the way, the browser does not and cannot correct the URL on its own; only the server can determine whether the URL is missing its final slash.)
This error-correction process means that URLs without their final slash will still work. However, this process wastes time and network resources. If you include the final slash when it is appropriate, then browsers won't need to send a second request to the server.
The exception is when you refer to a URL with just a hostname (e.g., In this case, the browser will assume that you want the main index ("/") from the server, and you do not have to include the final slash. However, many regard it as good style to include it anyway.

Question 5 :

How do I specify a specific combination of frames instead of the default document?

Answer :

This is unfortunately not possible. When you navigate through a site using frames, the URL will not change as the documents in the individual frames change. This means that there is no way to indicate the combination of documents that make up the current state of the frameset.
The author can provide multiple frameset documents, one for each combination of frame content. These frameset documents can be generated automatically, perhaps being created on the fly by a CGI program. Rather than linking to individual content documents, the author can link to these separate frameset documents using TARGET="_top". Thus, the URL of the current frameset document will always specify the combination of frames being displayed, which allows links, bookmarks, etc. to function normally.