Set - 2

Question 1 :

How many bits are used to represent Unicode, ASCII, UTF-16, and UTF-8 characters?

Answer :

Unicode requires 16 bits and ASCII require 7 bits. Although the ASCII character set uses only 7 bits, it is usually represented as 8 bits. UTF-8 represents characters using 8, 16, and 18 bit patterns. UTF-16 uses 16-bit and larger bit patterns.

Question 2 :

What's the main difference between a Vector and an ArrayList?

Answer :

Java Vector class is internally synchronized and ArrayList is not.

Question 3 :

What are wrapped classes?

Answer :

Wrapped classes are classes that allow primitive types to be accessed as objects.

Question 4 :

Does garbage collection guarantee that a program will not run out of memory?

Answer :

No, it doesn't. It is possible for programs to use up memory resources faster than they are garbage collected. It is also possible for programs to create objects that are not subject to garbage collection.

Question 5 :

What is the difference between preemptive scheduling and time slicing?

Answer :

Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other factors.

Question 6 :

Name Component subclasses that support painting ?

Answer :

The Canvas, Frame, Panel, and Applet classes support painting.

Question 7 :

What is a native method?

Answer :

A native method is a method that is implemented in a language other than Java.

Question 8 :

How can you write a loop indefinitely?

Answer :

for(;;)--for loop; while(true)--always true, etc.

Question 9 :

Can an anonymous class be declared as implementing an interface and extending a class?

Answer :

An anonymous class may implement an interface or extend a superclass, but may not be declared to do both.

Question 10 :

What is the purpose of finalization?

Answer :

The purpose of finalization is to give an unreachable object the opportunity to perform any cleanup processing before the object is garbage collected.

Question 11 :

When should the method invokeLater()be used?

Answer :

This method is used to ensure that Swing components are updated through the event-dispatching thread.

Question 12 :

How many methods in Object class?

Answer :

This question is not asked to test your memory. It tests you how well you know Java. Ten in total.
equals() & hashcode()
wait() & notify()

Question 13 :

How does Java handle integer overflows and underflows?

Answer :

It uses low order bytes of the result that can fit into the size of the type allowed by the operation.

Question 14 :

What is the numeric promotion?

Answer :

Numeric promotion is used with both unary and binary bitwise operators. This means that byte, char, and short values are converted to int values before a bitwise operator is applied.
If a binary bitwise operator has one long operand, the other operand is converted to a long value.
The type of the result of a bitwise operation is the type to which the operands have been promoted. For example:
short a = 5;
byte b = 10;
long c = 15;
The type of the result of (a+b) is int, not short or byte. The type of the result of (a+c) or (b+c) is long.

Question 15 :

Is the numeric promotion available in other platform?

Answer :

Yes. Because Java is implemented using a platform-independent virtual machine, bitwise operations always yield the same result, even when run on machines that use radically different CPUs.

Question 16 :

What is the difference between the Boolean & operator and the && operator?

Answer :

If an expression involving the Boolean & operator is evaluated, both operands are evaluated. Then the & operator is applied to the operand. When an expression involving the && operator is evaluated, the first operand is evaluated. If the first operand returns a value of true then the second operand is evaluated. The && operator is then applied to the first and second operands. If the first operand evaluates to false, the evaluation of the second operand is skipped.
Operator & has no chance to skip both sides evaluation and && operator does. If asked why, give details as above.

Question 17 :

When is the ArithmeticException throwQuestion: What is the GregorianCalendar class?

Answer :

The GregorianCalendar provides support for traditional Western calendars.

Question 18 :

What is the SimpleTimeZone class?

Answer :

The SimpleTimeZone class provides support for a Gregorian calendar.

Question 19 :

How can a subclass call a method or a constructor defined in a superclass?

Answer :

Use the following syntax: super.myMethod(); To call a constructor of the superclass, just write super(); in the first line of the subclass's constructor.

Question 20 :

What is the Properties class?

Answer :

The properties class is a subclass of Hashtable that can be read from or written to a stream. It also provides the capability to specify a set of default values to be used.

Question 21 :

What is the purpose of the Runtime class?

Answer :

The purpose of the Runtime class is to provide access to the Java runtime system.

Question 22 :

What is the purpose of the System class?

Answer :

The purpose of the System class is to provide access to system resources.

Question 23 :

What is the purpose of the finally clause of a try-catch-finally statement?

Answer :

The finally clause is used to provide the capability to execute code no matter whether or not an exception is thrown or caught.

Question 24 :

What is the Locale class?

Answer :

The Locale class is used to tailor program output to the conventions of a particular geographic, political, or cultural region.

Question 25 :

What is an abstract method?

Answer :

An abstract method is a method whose implementation is deferred to a subclass. Or, a method that has no implementation.

Question 26 :

What is the difference between interface and abstract class?

Answer :

interface contains methods that must be abstract; abstract class may contain concrete methods. interface contains variables that must be static and final; abstract class may contain non-final and final variables. members in an interface are public by default, abstract class may contain non-public members. interface is used to "implements"; whereas abstract class is used to "extends". interface can be used to achieve multiple inheritance; abstract class can be used as a single inheritance. interface can "extends" another interface, abstract class can "extends" another class and "implements" multiple interfaces. interface is absolutely abstract; abstract class can be invoked if a main() exists. interface is more flexible than abstract class because one class can only "extends" one super class, but "implements" multiple interfaces. If given a choice, use interface instead of abstract class.

Question 27 :

What is a static method?

Answer :

A static method is a method that belongs to the class rather than any object of the class and doesn't apply to an object or even require that any objects of the class have been instantiated.

Question 28 :

What is a protected method?

Answer :

A protected method is a method that can be accessed by any method in its package and inherited by any subclass of its class.

Question 29 :

What is the difference between a static and a non-static inner class?

Answer :

A non-static inner class may have object instances that are associated with instances of the class's outer class. A static inner class does not have any object instances.

Question 30 :

What is an object's lock and which object's have locks?

Answer :

An object's lock is a mechanism that is used by multiple threads to obtain synchronized access to the object. A thread may execute a synchronized method of an object only after it has acquired the object's lock. All objects and classes have locks. A class's lock is acquired on the class's Class object.

Question 31 :

When can an object reference be cast to an interface reference?

Answer :

An object reference can be cast to an interface reference when the object implements the referenced interface.

Question 32 :

What is the difference between a Window and a Frame?

Answer :

The Frame class extends Window to define a main application window that can have a menu bar.

Question 33 :

What is the difference between a Window and a Frame?

Answer :

Heavy weight components like Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), depend on the local windowing toolkit. For example, java.awt.Button is a heavy weight component, when it is running on the Java platform for Unix platform, it maps to a real Motif button. In this relationship, the Motif button is called the peer to the java.awt.Button. If you create two Buttons, two peers and hence two Motif Buttons are also created. The Java platform communicates with the Motif Buttons using the Java Native Interface. For each and every component added to the application, there is an additional overhead tied to the local windowing system, which is why these components are called heavy weight.

Question 34 :

Which package has light weight components?

Answer :

javax.Swing package. All components in Swing, except JApplet, JDialog, JFrame and JWindow are lightweight components.

Question 35 :

What are peerless components?

Answer :

The peerless components are called light weight components.

Question 36 :

What is the difference between the Font and FontMetrics classes?

Answer :

The FontMetrics class is used to define implementation-specific properties, such as ascent and descent, of a Font object

Question 37 :

What is the difference between the Reader/Writer class hierarchy and the InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy?

Answer :

The Reader/Writer class hierarchy is character-oriented, and the InputStream/OutputStream class hierarchy is byte-oriented.

Question 38 :

What classes of exceptions may be caught by a catch clause?

Answer :

A catch clause can catch any exception that may be assigned to the Throwable type. This includes the Error and Exception types.

Question 39 :

What is the difference between throw and throws keywords?
The throw keyword denotes a statement that causes an exception to be initiated. It takes the Exception object to be thrown as argument. The exception will be caught by an immediately encompassing try-catch construction or propagated further up the calling hierarchy.
The throws keyword is a modifier of a method that designates that exceptions may come out of the method, either by virtue of the method throwing the exception itself or because it fails to catch such exceptions that a method it calls may throw.

Answer :

Question 40 :

If a class is declared without any access modifiers, where may the class be accessed?

Answer :

A class that is declared without any access modifiers is said to have package or friendly access. This means that the class can only be accessed by other classes and interfaces that are defined within the same package.

Question 41 :

What is the Map interface?

Answer :

The Map interface replaces the JDK 1.1 Dictionary class and is used associate keys with values.

Question 42 :

Does a class inherit the constructors of its super class?

Answer :

A class does not inherit constructors from any of its superclasses.

Question 43 :

Name primitive Java types.

Answer :

The primitive types are byte, char, short, int, long, float, double, and Boolean.

Question 44 :

Which class should you use to obtain design information about an object?

Answer :

The Class class is used to obtain information about an object's design.

Question 45 :

How can a GUI component handle its own events?

Answer :

A component can handle its own events by implementing the required event-listener interface and adding itself as its own event listener.

Question 46 :

How are the elements of a GridBagLayout organized?

Answer :

The elements of a GridBagLayout are organized according to a grid. However, the elements are of different sizes and may occupy more than one row or column of the grid. In addition, the rows and columns may have different sizes.

Question 47 :

What advantage do Java's layout managers provide over traditional windowing systems?

Answer :

Java uses layout managers to lay out components in a consistent manner across all windowing platforms. Since Java's layout managers aren't tied to absolute sizing and positioning, they are able to accommodate platform-specific differences among windowing systems.

Question 48 :

What are the problems faced by Java programmers who don't use layout managers?

Answer :

Without layout managers, Java programmers are faced with determining how their GUI will be displayed across multiple windowing systems and finding a common sizing and positioning that will work within the constraints imposed by each windowing system.

Question 49 :

What is the difference between static and non-static variables?

Answer :

A static variable is associated with the class as a whole rather than with specific instances of a class. Non-static variables take on unique values with each object instance.

Question 50 :

What is the difference between the paint() and repaint() methods?

Answer :

The paint() method supports painting via a Graphics object. The repaint() method is used to cause paint() to be invoked by the AWT painting thread.