Set - 7

Question 26 :

I made my class Cloneable but I still get 'Can't access protected method clone. Why?

Answer :

Yeah, some of the Java books, in particular "The Java Programming Language", imply that all you have to do in order to have your class support clone() is implement the Cloneable interface. Not so. Perhaps that was the intent at some point, but that's not the way it works currently. As it stands, you have to implement your own public clone() method, even if it doesn't do anything special and just calls super.clone().


Question 27 :

What are the different identifier states of a Thread?

Answer :

The different identifiers of a Thread are:
R - Running or runnable thread
S - Suspended thread
CW - Thread waiting on a condition variable
MW - Thread waiting on a monitor lock
MS - Thread suspended waiting on a monitor lock


Question 28 :

What are some alternatives to inheritance?

Answer :

Delegation is an alternative to inheritance. Delegation means that you include an instance of another class as an instance variable, and forward messages to the instance. It is often safer than inheritance because it forces you to think about each message you forward, because the instance is of a known class, rather than a new class, and because it doesn't force you to accept all the methods of the super class: you can provide only the methods that really make sense. On the other hand, it makes you write more code, and it is harder to re-use (because it is not a subclass).


Question 29 :

Why isn't there operator overloading?

Answer :

Because C++ has proven by example that operator overloading makes code almost impossible to maintain. In fact there very nearly wasn't even method overloading in Java, but it was thought that this was too useful for some very basic methods like print(). Note that some of the classes like DataOutputStream have unoverloaded methods like writeInt() and writeByte().


Question 30 :

What does it mean that a method or field is "static"?

Answer :

Static variables and methods are instantiated only once per class. In other words they are class variables, not instance variables. If you change the value of a static variable in a particular object, the value of that variable changes for all instances of that class.
Static methods can be referenced with the name of the class rather than the name of a particular object of the class (though that works too). That's how library methods like System.out.println() work. out is a static field in the java.lang.System class.