Question 1 :
What are the main components of Transaction-based Systems?
Transaction Manager and
Question 2 :
What are the three types of SQL database server architecture?
Process-per-client Architecture. (Example: Oracle 6, Informix )
Multithreaded Architecture. (Example: Sybase, SQL server)
Question 3 :
What are the Classification of clients?
Non-GUI clients - Two types are:-
Non-GUI clients that do not need multi-tasking
(Example: Automatic Teller Machines (ATM), Cell phone)
Non-GUI clients that need multi-tasking
Question 4 :
What are called Non-GUI clients, GUI Clients and OOUI Clients?
Non-GUI Client: These are applications, generate server requests with a minimal amount of human interaction.
GUI Clients: These are applications, where occasional requests to the server result from a human interacting with a GUI
(Example: Windows 3.x, NT 3.5)
OOUI clients : These are applications, which are highly-iconic, object-oriented user interface that provides seamless access to information in very visual formats.
(Example: MAC OS, Windows 95, NT 4.0)
Question 5 :
What is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)?
MOM allows general purpose messages to be exchanged in a Client/Server system using message queues. Applications communicate over networks by simply putting messages in the queues and getting messages from queues. It typically provides a very simple high level APIs to its services.
MOM's messaging and queuing allow clients and servers to communicate across a network without being linked by a private, dedicated, logical connection. The clients and server can run at different times. It is a post-office like metaphor.
Question 6 :
What is meant by Middleware?
Middleware is a distributed software needed to support interaction between clients and servers. In short, it is the software that is in the middle of the Client/Server systems and it acts as a bridge between the clients and servers. It starts with the API set on the client side that is used to invoke a service and it covers the transmission of the request over the network and the resulting response.
It neither includes the software that provides the actual service - that is in the servers domain nor the user interface or the application login - that's in clients domain.
Question 7 :
What are the functions of the typical server program?
It waits for client-initiated requests. Executes many requests at the same time. Takes care of VIP clients first. Initiates and runs background task activity. Keeps running. Grown bigger and faster.
Question 8 :
What is meant by Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)?
It treats all processors as equal. Any processor can do the work of any other processor. Applications are divided into threads that can run concurrently on any available processor. Any processor in the pool can run the OS kernel and execute user-written threads.
Question 9 :
What are General Middleware?
It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, RPC, Queuing services along with the network OS extensions such as the distributed file and print services.
Question 10 :
What are Service-specific middleware?
It is needed to accomplish a particular Client/Server type of services which includes:-
Database specific middleware
OLTP specific middleware
Groupware specific middleware
Object specific middleware
Internet specific middleware and
System management specific middleware.
Question 11 :
What is meant by Asymmetric Multiprocessing (AMP)?
It imposes hierarchy and a division of labor among processors. Only one designated processor, the master, controls (in a tightly coupled arrangement) slave processors dedicated to specific functions.
Question 12 :
What is OLTP?
In the transaction server, the client component usually includes GUI and the server components usually consists of SQL transactions against a database. These applications are called OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) OLTP Applications typically,
Receive a fixed set of inputs from remote clients. Perform multiple pre-compiled SQL comments against a local database. Commit the work and Return a fixed set of results.
Question 13 :
What is meant by 3-Tier architecture?
In 3-tier Client/Server systems, the application logic (or process) lives in the middle tier and it is separated from the data and the user interface. In theory, the 3-tier Client/Server systems are more scalable, robust and flexible.
Example: TP monitor, Web.
Question 14 :
What is meant by 2-Tier architecture?
In 2-tier Client/Server systems, the application logic is either buried inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server.
Example: File servers and Database servers with stored procedures.
Question 15 :
What is Load balancing?
If the number of incoming clients requests exceeds the number of processes in a server class, the TP Monitor may dynamically start new ones and this is called Load balancing.
Question 16 :
What are called Fat clients and Fat servers?
If the bulk of the application runs on the Client side, then it is Fat clients. It is used for decision support and personal software.
If the bulk of the application runs on the Server side, then it is Fat servers. It tries to minimize network interchanges by creating more abstract levels of services.
Question 17 :
What is meant by Horizontal scaling and Vertical scaling?
Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multi-servers.
Question 18 :
What is Groupware server?
Groupware addresses the management of semi-structured information such as text, image, mail, bulletin boards and the flow of work. These Client/Server systems have people in direct contact with other people.
Question 19 :
What are the two broad classes of middleware?
Question 20 :
What are the types of Servers?
Database servers Transaction servers Groupware servers Object servers Web servers.
What is a File server?
File servers are useful for sharing files across a network. With a file server, the client passes requests for file records over network to file server.
Question 21 :
What are the five major technologies that can be used to create Client/Server applications?
Question 22 :
What is Client/Server?
Clients and Servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task. Many systems with very different architectures that are connected together are also called Client/Server.
Question 23 :
List out the benefits obtained by using the Client/Server oriented TP Monitors?
Client/Server applications development framework.
Firewalls of protection.
Scalability of functions.
Reduced system cost.
Question 24 :
What are the services provided by the Operating System?
Extended services - These are add-on modular software components that are layered on top of base service.
Question 25 :
What is ACID property?
ACID is a term coined by Andrew Reuter in 1983, which stands for Atomicity, Consistence, Isolation and Durability.