Question 1 :
What is redirector?
Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer.
Question 2 :
What is packet filter?
Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.
Question 3 :
What is logical link control?
One of two sub layers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sub layer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection.
Question 4 :
What is traffic shaping?
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.
Question 5 :
What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI?
NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications.
NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.
Question 6 :
Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model?
It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design.
Question 7 :
What is Proxy ARP?
is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.
Question 8 :
What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)?
It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system.
Question 9 :
What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)?
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.
Question 10 :
What is OSPF?
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.
Question 11 :
What is Kerberos?
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.
Question 12 :
What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)?
It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
Question 13 :
What is Mail Gateway?
It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.
Question 14 :
What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)?
It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
Question 15 :
What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)?
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.
Question 16 :
What is source route?
It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.
Question 17 :
What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?
It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).
Question 18 :
What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?
It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.
Question 19 :
What is Project 802?
It is a project started by IEEE to set standards that enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols.
It consists of the following:
802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols.
802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is non-architecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs. Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are
Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5).
802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.
Question 20 :
What is silly window syndrome?
It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time.
Question 21 :
What is a Multi-homed Host?
It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host.
Question 22 :
What is autonomous system?
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.
Question 23 :
What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways?
Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.
Question 24 :
What is MAU?
In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU).
Question 25 :
Explain 5-4-3 rule.?
In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated.