Set - 2

Question 1 :

What are the advantages of OOPL?

Answer :

Object oriented programming languages directly represent the real life objects. The features of OOPL as inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation makes it powerful.


Question 2 :

Can a method be overloaded based on different return type but same argument type ?

Answer :

No, because the methods can be called without using their return type in which case there is ambiguity for the compiler.


Question 3 :

What is Downcasting ?

Answer :

Downcasting is the casting from a general to a more specific type, i.e. casting down the hierarchy.


Question 4 :

Who were the three famous amigos and what was their contribution to the object community?

Answer :

The Three amigos namely,
James Rumbaugh (OMT): A veteran in analysis who came up with an idea about the objects and their Relationships (in particular Associations).
Grady Booch: A veteran in design who came up with an idea about partitioning of systems into subsystems.
Ivar Jacobson (Objectory): The father of USECASES, who described about the user and system interaction.


Question 5 :

What is meant by "method-wars"?

Answer :

Before 1994 there were different methodologies like Rumbaugh, Booch, Jacobson, Meyer etc who followed their own notations to model the systems. The developers were in a dilemma to choose the method which best accomplishes their needs. This particular span was called as "method-wars"


Question 6 :

Differentiate Aggregation and containment?

Answer :

Aggregation is the relationship between the whole and a part. We can add/subtract some properties in the part (slave) side. It won't affect the whole part.
Best example is Car, which contains the wheels and some extra parts. Even though the parts are not there we can call it as car.
But, in the case of containment the whole part is affected when the part within that got affected. The human body is an apt example for this relationship. When the whole body dies the parts (heart etc) are died.


Question 7 :

Differentiate persistent & non-persistent objects?

Answer :

Persistent refers to an object's ability to transcend time or space. A persistent object stores/saves its state in a permanent storage system with out losing the information represented by the object.
A non-persistent object is said to be transient or ephemeral. By default objects are considered as non-persistent.


Question 8 :

List out some of the object-oriented methodologies.

Answer :

Object Oriented Development (OOD) (Booch 1991,1994).
Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOA/D) (Coad and Yourdon 1991).
Object Modeling Techniques (OMT) (Rumbaugh 1991).
Object Oriented Software Engineering (Objectory) (Jacobson 1992).
Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) (Shlaer and Mellor 1992).
The Fusion Method (Coleman 1991).


Question 9 :

When does a name clash occur?

Answer :

A name clash occurs when a name is defined in more than one place. For example., two different class libraries could give two different classes the same name. If you try to use many class libraries at the same time, there is a fair chance that you will be unable to compile or link the program because of name clashes.


Question 10 :

Object Oriented : Essentials and History

Answer :

An object-oriented programming language (also called an OO language) is one that allows or encourages, to some degree, object-oriented programming methods.

Simula (1967) is generally accepted as the first language to have the primary features of an object-oriented language. It was created for making simulation programs, in which what came to be called objects were the most important information representation. Smalltalk (1972 to 1980) is arguably the canonical example, and the one with which much of the theory of object-oriented programming was developed.

OO languages can be grouped into several broad classes, determined by the extent to which they support all features and functionality of object-orientation and objects: classes, methods, polymorphism, inheritance, and reusability.

* Languages called "pure" OO languages, because everything in them is treated consistently as an object, from primitives such as characters and punctuation, all the way up to whole classes, prototypes, blocks, modules, etc. They were designed specifically to facilitate, even enforce, OO methods. Examples: Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ruby.
* Languages designed mainly for OO programming, but with some procedural elements. Examples: Java, Python.
* Languages that are historically procedural languages, but have been extended with some OO features. Examples: C++, Fortran 2003, Perl.
* Languages with most of the features of objects (classes, methods, inheritance, reusability), but in a distinctly original, even elegant, form. Examples: Oberon, and successor Oberon-2.
* Languages with abstract data type support, but not all features of object-orientation, sometimes called object-based languages. Examples: Modula-2 (with excellent encapsulation and information hiding), Pliant.

Inheritance and polymorphism are usually used to reduce code bloat. Abstraction and encapsulation are used to increase code clarity, quite independent of the other two traits.