Question 11 :
What resources are used when a thread created? How do they differ from those when a process is created?
When a thread is created the threads does not require any new resources to execute the thread shares the resources like memory of the process to which they belong to. The benefit of code sharing is that it allows an application to have several different threads of activity all within the same address space. Whereas if a new process creation is very heavyweight because it always requires new address space to be created and even if they share the memory then the inter process communication is expensive when compared to the communication between the threads.
Question 12 :
What is virtual memory?
Virtual memory is hardware technique where the system appears to have more memory that it actually does. This is done by time-sharing, the physical memory and storage parts of the memory one disk when they are not actively being used.
Question 13 :
What is Throughput, Turnaround time, waiting time and Response time?
Throughput â€“ number of processes that complete their execution per time unit. Turnaround time â€“ amount of time to execute a particular process. Waiting time â€“ amount of time a process has been waiting in the ready queue. Response time â€“ amount of time it takes from when a request was submitted until the first response is produced, not output (for time-sharing environment).
Question 14 :
What is the state of the processor, when a process is waiting for some event to occur?
Question 15 :
What is the important aspect of a real-time system or Mission Critical Systems?
A real time operating system has well defined fixed time constraints. Process must be done within the defined constraints or the system will fail. An example is the operating system for a flight control computer or an advanced jet airplane. Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time. Hard real-time: Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM), Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems. Soft real-time: Limited utility in industrial control of robotics, Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features.