Set - 8

Question 1 :

What are the different types of segments?

Answer :

Data segment, index segment, rollback segment and temporary segment.


Question 2 :

What is a data segment?

Answer :

Each non-clustered table has a data segment. All of the table's data is stored in the extents of its data segment. Each cluster has a data segment. The data of every table in the cluster is stored in the cluster's data segment.


Question 3 :

What is an index segment?

Answer :

Each index has an index segment that stores all of its data.


Question 4 :

What is rollback segment?

Answer :

A database contains one or more rollback segments to temporarily store "undo" information.


Question 5 :

What are the uses of rollback segment?

Answer :

To generate read-consistent database information during database recovery and to rollback uncommitted transactions by the users.


Question 6 :

What is a temporary segment?

Answer :

Temporary segments are created by Oracle when a SQL statement needs a temporary work area to complete execution. When the statement finishes execution, the temporary segment extents are released to the system for future use.


Question 7 :

What is a datafile?

Answer :

Every Oracle database has one or more physical data files. A database's data files contain all the database data. The data of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the data files allocated for a database.


Question 8 :

What are the characteristics of data files?

Answer :

A data file can be associated with only one database. Once created a data file can't change size. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace.


Question 9 :

What is a redo log?

Answer :

The set of redo log files for a database is collectively known as the database redo log.


Question 10 :

What is the function of redo log?

Answer :

The primary function of the redo log is to record all changes made to data.


Question 11 :

What is the use of redo log information?

Answer :

The information in a redo log file is used only to recover the database from a system or media failure prevents database data from being written to a database's data files.


Question 12 :

What does a control file contains?

Answer :

- Database name
- Names and locations of a database's files and redolog files.
- Time stamp of database creation.


Question 13 :

What is the use of control file?

Answer :

When an instance of an Oracle database is started, its control file is used to identify the database and redo log files that must be opened for database operation to proceed. It is also used in database recovery.


Question 14 :

Is it possible to split the print reviewer into more than one region?

Answer :

Yes


Question 15 :

Is it possible to center an object horizontally in a repeating frame that has a variable horizontal size?

Answer :

Yes


Question 16 :

For a field in a repeating frame, can the source come from the column which does not exist in the data group which forms the base for the frame?

Answer :

Yes


Question 17 :

Can a field be used in a report without it appearing in any data group?

Answer :

Yes


Question 18 :

The join defined by the default data link is an outer join yes or no?

Answer :

Yes


Question 19 :

Can a formula column referred to columns in higher group?

Answer :

Yes


Question 20 :

Can a formula column be obtained through a select statement?

Answer :

Yes


Question 21 :

Is it possible to insert comments into sql statements return in the data model editor?

Answer :

Yes


Question 22 :

Is it possible to disable the parameter from while running the report?

Answer :

Yes


Question 23 :

When a form is invoked with call_form, Does oracle forms issues a save point?

Answer :

Yes


Question 24 :

Explain the difference between a hot backup and a cold backup and the benefits associated with each.

Answer :

A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode. The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any point in time. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. In addition, since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk.


Question 25 :

You have just had to restore from backup and do not have any control files. How would you go about bringing up this database?

Answer :

I would create a text based backup control file, stipulating where on disk all the data files where and then issue the recover command with the using backup control file clause.


Question 26 :

How do you switch from an init.ora file to a spfile?

Answer :

Issue the create spfile from pfile command.
Explain the difference between a data block, an extent and a segment.
A data block is the smallest unit of logical storage for a database object. As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks. These groupings of contiguous data blocks are called extents. All the extents that an object takes when grouped together are considered the segment of the database object.


Question 27 :

Give two examples of how you might determine the structure of the table DEPT.

Answer :

Use the describe command or use the dbms_metadata.get_ddl package.


Question 28 :

Where would you look for errors from the database engine?

Answer :

In the alert log.


Question 29 :

Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table.

Answer :

Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. The delete command, on the other hand, is a DML operation, which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete.


Question 30 :

Give the reasoning behind using an index.

Answer :

Faster access to data blocks in a table.


Question 31 :

Give the two types of tables involved in producing a star schema and the type of data they hold.

Answer :

Fact tables and dimension tables. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables.


Question 32 :

What type of index should you use on a fact table?

Answer :

A Bitmap index.


Question 33 :

Give two examples of referential integrity constraints.

Answer :

A primary key and a foreign key.


Question 34 :

A table is classified as a parent table and you want to drop and re-create it. How would you do this without affecting the children tables?

Answer :

Disable the foreign key constraint to the parent, drop the table, re-create the table, enable the foreign key constraint.


Question 35 :

Explain the difference between ARCHIVELOG mode and NOARCHIVELOG mode and the benefits and disadvantages to each.

Answer :

ARCHIVELOG mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode is basically the absence of ARCHIVELOG mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any point in time. NOARCHIVELOG mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly.


Question 36 :

What command would you use to create a backup control file?

Answer :

Alter database backup control file to trace.


Question 37 :

Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it.

Answer :

STARTUP NOMOUNT - Instance startup
STARTUP MOUNT - The database is mounted
STARTUP OPEN - The database is opened
What column differentiates the V$ views to the GV$ views and how?
The INST_ID column which indicates the instance in a RAC environment the information came from.


Question 38 :

How would you go about generating an EXPLAIN plan?

Answer :

Create a plan table with utlxplan.sql.
Use the explain plan set statement_id = 'tst1' into plan_table for a SQL statement
Look at the explain plan with utlxplp.sql or utlxpls.sql


Question 39 :

How would you go about increasing the buffer cache hit ratio?

Answer :

Use the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v$db_cache_advice table. If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db_cache_size command.


Question 40 :

UNDERSTANDING THE RMAN ARCHITECTURE

Answer :

An oracle RMAN comprises of
RMAN EXECUTABLE This could be present and fired even through client side
TARGET DATABASE This is the database which needs to be backed up .
RECOVERY CATALOG Recovery catalog is optional otherwise backup details are stored in target database controlfile .
It is a repository of information queried and updated by Recovery Manager
It is a schema or user stored in Oracle database. One schema can support many databases
It contains information about physical schema of target database datafile and archive log ,backup sets and pieces Recovery catalog is a must in following scenarios
. In order to store scripts
. For tablespace point in time recovery

Media Management Software
Media Management software is a must if you are using RMAN for storing backup in tape drive directly.

Backups in RMAN
Oracle backups in RMAN are of the following type
RMAN complete backup OR RMAN incremental backup
These backups are of RMAN proprietary nature

IMAGE COPY
The advantage of uing Image copy is its not in RMAN proprietary format..

Backup Format
RMAN backup is not in oracle format but in RMAN format. Oracle backup comprises of backup sets and it consists of backup pieces. Backup sets are logical entity In oracle 9i it gets stored in a default location There are two type of backup sets Datafile backup sets, Archivelog backup sets One more important point of data file backup sets is it do not include empty blocks. A backup set would contain many backup pieces.
A single backup piece consists of physical files which are in RMAN proprietary format.

Example of taking backup using RMAN
Taking RMAN Backup
In non archive mode in dos prompt type
RMAN
You get the RMAN prompt
RMAN > Connect Target
Connect to target database : Magic 
using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog

Lets take a simple backup of database in non archive mode
shutdown immediate ; - - Shutdowns the database
startup mount
backup database ;- its start backing the database
alter database open;
We can fire the same command in archive log mode
And whole of datafiles will be backed
Backup database plus archivelog;

Restoring database
Restoring database has been made very simple in 9i .
It is just
Restore database..
RMAN has become intelligent to identify which datafiles has to be restored
and the location of backuped up file.

Oracle Enhancement for RMAN in 10 G

Flash Recovery Area
Right now the price of hard disk is falling. Many dba are taking oracle database backup inside the hard disk itself since it results in lesser mean time between recoverability.
The new parameter introduced is
DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST = /oracle/flash_recovery_area
By configuring the RMAN RETENTION POLICY the flash recovery area will automatically delete obsolete backups and archive logs that are no longer required based on that configuration Oracle has introduced new features in incremental backup

Change Tracking File
Oracle 10g has the facility to deliver faster incrementals with the implementation of changed tracking file feature.This will results in faster backups lesser space consumption and also reduces the time needed for daily backups

Incrementally Updated Backups
Oracle database 10g Incrementally Updates Backup features merges the image copy of a datafile with RMAN incremental backup. The resulting image copy is now updated with block changes captured by incremental backups.The merging of the image copy and incremental backup is initiated with RMAN recover command. This results in faster recovery.

Binary compression technique reduces backup space usage by 50-75%.

With the new DURATION option for the RMAN BACKUP command, DBAs can weigh backup performance against system service level requirements. By specifying a duration, RMAN will automatically calculate the appropriate backup rate; in addition, DBAs can optionally specify whether backups should minimize time or system load.

New Features in Oem to identify RMAN related backup like backup pieces, backup sets and image copy

Oracle 9i New features Persistent RMAN Configuration
A new configure command has been introduced in Oracle 9i , that lets you configure various features including automatic channels, parallelism ,backup options, etc.
These automatic allocations and options can be overridden by commands in a RMAN command file.

Controlfile Auto backups
Through this new feature RMAN will automatically perform a controlfile auto backup. after every backup or copy command. 

Block Media Recovery
If we can restore a few blocks rather than an entire file we only need few blocks.
We even dont need to bring the data file offline.
Syntax for it as follows
Block Recover datafile 8 block 22;

Configure Backup Optimization
Prior to 9i whenever we backed up database using RMAN our backup also used take backup of read only table spaces which had already been backed up and also the same with archive log too.
Now with 9i backup optimization parameter we can prevent repeat backup of read only tablespace and archive log. The command for this is as follows Configure backup optimization on

Archive Log failover
If RMAN cannot read a block in an archived log from a destination. RMAN automatically attempts to read from an alternate location this is called as archive log failover

There are additional commands like
backup database not backed up since time '31-jan-2002 14:00:00'
Do not backup previously backed up files
(say a previous backup failed and you want to restart from where it left off).
Similar syntax is supported for restores
backup device sbt backup set all Copy a disk backup to tape
(backing up a backup
Additionally it supports
. Backup of server parameter file
. Parallel operation supported
. Extensive reporting available
. Scripting
. Duplex backup sets
. Corrupt block detection
. Backup archive logs

Pitfalls of using RMAN
Previous to version Oracle 9i backups were not that easy which means you had to allocate a channel compulsorily to take backup You had to give a run etc . The syntax was a bit complex …RMAN has now become very simple and easy to use..
If you changed the location of backup set it is compulsory for you to register it using RMAN or while you are trying to restore backup It resulted in hanging situations
There is no method to know whether during recovery database restore is going to fail because of missing archive log file.
Compulsory Media Management only if using tape backup
Incremental backups though used to consume less space used to be slower since it used to read the entire database to find the changed blocks and also They have difficult time streaming the tape device. .
Considerable improvement has been made in 10g to optimize the algorithm to handle changed block.

Observation
Introduced in Oracle 8 it has become more powerful and simpler with newer version of Oracle 9 and 10 g.
So if you really don't want to miss something critical please start using RMAN.


Question 41 :

Explain UNION,MINUS,UNION ALL, INTERSECT ?

Answer :

INTERSECT returns all distinct rows selected by both queries.MINUS - returns all distinct rows selected by the first query but not by the second.UNION - returns all distinct rows selected by either queryUNION ALL - returns all rows selected by either query, including all duplicates.


Question 42 :

Should the OEM Console be displayed at all times (when there are scheduled jobs)? (for DBA)

Answer :

When a job is submitted the agent will confirm the status of the job. When the status shows up as scheduled, you can close down the OEM console. The processing of the job is managed by the OIA (Oracle Intelligent Agent). The OIA maintains a .jou file in the agent's subdirectory. When the console is launched communication with the Agent is established and the contents of the .jou file (binary) are reported to the console job subsystem. Note that OEM will not be able to send e-mail and paging notifications when the Console is not started.


Question 43 :

Difference between SUBSTR and INSTR ?

Answer :

INSTR (String1,String2(n,(m)),INSTR returns the position of the mth occurrence of the string 2 instring1. The search begins from nth position of string1.SUBSTR (String1 n,m)SUBSTR returns a character string of size m in string1, starting from nth position of string1.


Question 44 :

What kind of jobs can one schedule with OEM? (for DBA)

Answer :

OEM comes with pre-defined jobs like Export, Import, run OS commands, run sql scripts, SQL*Plus commands etc. It also gives you the flexibility of scheduling custom jobs written with the TCL language.


Question 45 :

What are the pre requisites ?

Answer :

I. to modify data type of a column ? ii. to add a column with NOT NULL constraint ? To Modify the datatype of a column the column must be empty. to add a column with NOT NULL constrain, the table must be empty.


Question 46 :

How does one backout events and jobs during maintenance slots? (for DBA)

Answer :

Managemnet and data collection activity can be suspended by imposing a blackout. Look at these examples:
agentctl start blackout # Blackout the entrire agent
agentctl stop blackout # Resume normal monitoring and management
agentctl start blackout ORCL # Blackout database ORCL
agentctl stop blackout ORCL # Resume normal monitoring and management
agentctl start blackout -s jobs -d 00:20 # Blackout jobs for 20 minutes


Question 47 :

What are the types of SQL Statement ?

Answer :

Data Definition Language :
CREATE,ALTER,DROP,TRUNCATE,REVOKE,NO AUDIT & COMMIT.

Data Manipulation Language:
INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,LOCK

TABLE,EXPLAIN PLAN & SELECT.Transactional Control:
COMMIT & ROLLBACKSession Control: ALTERSESSION & SET

ROLESystem Control :
ALTER SYSTEM.


Question 48 :

What is the Oracle Intelligent Agent? (for DBA)

Answer :

The Oracle Intelligent Agent (OIA) is an autonomous process that needs to run on a remote node in the network to make the node OEM manageable. The Oracle Intelligent Agent is responsible for:
. Discovering targets that can be managed (Database Servers, Net8 Listeners, etc.);
. Monitoring of events registered in Enterprise Manager; and
. Executing tasks associated with jobs submitted to Enterprise Manager.


Question 49 :

How does one start the Oracle Intelligent Agent? (for DBA)

Answer :

One needs to start an OIA (Oracle Intelligent Agent) process on all machines that will to be managed via OEM.
For OEM 9i and above:
agentctl start agent
agentctl stop agent

For OEM 2.1 and below:
lsnrctl dbsnmp_start
lsnrctl dbsnmp_status

On Windows NT, start the "OracleAgent" Service.
If the agent doesn't want to start, ensure your environment variables are set correctly and delete the following files before trying again:
1) In $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin: snmp_ro.ora and snmp_rw.ora.
2) Also delete ALL files in $ORACLE_HOME/network/agent/.


Question 50 :

Can one write scripts to send alert messages to the console?

Answer :

Start the OEM console and create a new event. Select option "Enable Unsolicited Event". Select test "Unsolicited Event". When entering the parameters, enter values similar to these:
Event Name: /oracle/script/myalert
Object: *
Severity: *
Message: *
One can now write the script and invoke the oemevent command to send alerts to the console. Look at this example: oemevent /oracle/script/myalert DESTINATION alert "My custom error message" where DESTINATION is the same value as entered in the "Monitored Destinations" field when you've registered the event in the OEM Console.


Question 51 :

Where can one get more information about TCL? (for DBA)

Answer :

One can write custom event checking routines for OEM using the TCL (Tool Command Language) language. Check the following sites for more information about TCL:
. The Tcl Developer Xchange - download and learn about TCL
. OraTCL at Sourceforge - Download the OraTCL package
. Tom Poindexter's Tcl Page - Oratcl was originally written by Tom Poindexter


Question 52 :

Are there any troubleshooting tips for OEM? (for DBA)

Answer :

. Create the OEM repository with a user (which will manage the OEM) and store it in a tablespace that does not share any data with other database users. It is a bad practice to create the repository with SYS and System.
. If you are unable to launch the console or there is a communication problem with the intelligent agent (daemon). Ensure OCX files are registered. Type the following in the DOS prompt (the current directory should be $ORACLE_HOME\BIN:
C:\Orawin95\Bin> RegSvr32 mmdx32.OCX
C:\Orawin95\Bin> RegSvr32 vojt.OCX
. If you have a problem starting the Oracle Agent
Solution A: Backup the *.Q files and Delete all the *.Q Files ($Oracle_home/network/agent folder)
Backup and delete SNMP_RO.ora, SNMP_RW.ora, dbsnmp.ver and services.ora files ($Oracle_Home/network/admin folder) Start the Oracle Agent service.
Solution B: Your version of Intelligent Agent could be buggy. Check with Oracle for any available patches. For example, the Intelligent Agent that comes with Oracle 8.0.4 is buggy.
Sometimes you get a Failed status for the job that was executed successfully.
Check the log to see the results of the execution rather than relying on this status.


Question 53 :

What is import/export and why does one need it? (for DBA)

Answer :

The Oracle export (EXP) and import (IMP) utilities are used to perform logical database backup and recovery. They are also used to move Oracle data from one machine, database or schema to another.
The imp/exp utilities use an Oracle proprietary binary file format and can thus only be used between Oracle databases. One cannot export data and expect to import it into a non-Oracle database. For more information on how to load and unload data from files, read the SQL*Loader FAQ.
The export/import utilities are also commonly used to perform the following tasks:
. Backup and recovery (small databases only)
. Reorganization of data/ Eliminate database fragmentation
. Detect database corruption. Ensure that all the data can be read.
. Transporting tablespaces between databases
. Etc.


Question 54 :

What is a display item?

Answer :

Display items are similar to text items but store only fetched or assigned values. Operators cannot navigate to a display item or edit the value it contains.


Question 55 :

How does one use the import/export utilities? (for DBA)

Answer :

Look for the "imp" and "exp" executables in your $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory. One can run them interactively, using command line parameters, or using parameter files. Look at the imp/exp parameters before starting. These parameters can be listed by executing the following commands: "exp help=yes" or "imp help=yes".
The following examples demonstrate how the imp/exp utilities can be used:
exp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp log=emp.log tables=emp rows=yes indexes=no
exp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp tables=(emp,dept)
imp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp full=yes
imp scott/tiger file=emp.dmp fromuser=scott touser=scott tables=dept
exp userid=scott/tiger@orcl parfile=export.txt
... where export.txt contains:
BUFFER=100000
FILE=account.dmp
FULL=n
OWNER=scott
GRANTS=y
COMPRESS=y
NOTE: If you do not like command line utilities, you can import and export data with the "Schema Manager" GUI that ships with Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM).


Question 56 :

What are the types of visual attribute settings?

Answer :

Custom Visual attributes Default visual attributes Named Visual attributes. Window
Can one export a subset of a table? (for DBA)
From Oracle8i one can use the QUERY= export parameter to selectively unload a subset of the data from a table. Look at this example:
exp scott/tiger tables=emp query=\"where deptno=10\"


Question 57 :

What are the two ways to incorporate images into a oracle forms application?

Answer :

Boilerplate Images
Image_items
Can one monitor how fast a table is imported? (for DBA)
If you need to monitor how fast rows are imported from a running import job, try one of the following methods:
Method 1:
select substr(sql_text,instr(sql_text,'INTO "'),30) table_name,
rows_processed,
round((sysdate-to_date(first_load_time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'))*24*60,1) minutes,
trunc(rows_processed/((sysdate-to_date(first_load_time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'))*24*60)) rows_per_min
from sys.v_$sqlarea
where sql_text like 'INSERT %INTO "%'
and command_type = 2
and open_versions > 0;
For this to work one needs to be on Oracle 7.3 or higher (7.2 might also be OK). If the import has more than one table, this statement will only show information about the current table being imported.
Contributed by Osvaldo Ancarola, Bs. As. Argentina.
Method 2:
Use the FEEDBACK=n import parameter. This command will tell IMP to display a dot for every N rows imported.


Question 58 :

Can one import tables to a different tablespace? (for DBA)

Answer :

Oracle offers no parameter to specify a different tablespace to import data into. Objects will be re-created in the tablespace they were originally exported from. One can alter this behaviour by following one of these procedures: Pre-create the table(s) in the correct tablespace:
. Import the dump file using the INDEXFILE= option
. Edit the indexfile. Remove remarks and specify the correct tablespaces.
. Run this indexfile against your database, this will create the required tables in the appropriate tablespaces
. Import the table(s) with the IGNORE=Y option.
Change the default tablespace for the user:
. Revoke the "UNLIMITED TABLESPACE" privilege from the user
. Revoke the user's quota from the tablespace from where the object was exported. This forces the import utility to create tables in the user's default tablespace.
. Make the tablespace to which you want to import the default tablespace for the user
. Import the table


Question 59 :

What do you mean by a block in forms4.0?

Answer :

Block is a single mechanism for grouping related items into a functional unit for storing, displaying and manipulating records.


Question 60 :

How is possible to restrict the user to a list of values while entering values for parameters?

Answer :

By setting the Restrict To List property to true in the parameter property sheet.


Question 61 :

What is SQL*Loader and what is it used for? (for DBA)

Answer :

SQL*Loader is a bulk loader utility used for moving data from external files into the Oracle database. Its syntax is similar to that of the DB2 Load utility, but comes with more options. SQL*Loader supports various load formats, selective loading, and multi-table loads.


Question 62 :

How does one use the SQL*Loader utility? (for DBA)

Answer :

One can load data into an Oracle database by using the sqlldr (sqlload on some platforms) utility. Invoke the utility without arguments to get a list of available parameters. Look at the following example:
sqlldr scott/tiger control=loader.ctl
This sample control file (loader.ctl) will load an external data file containing delimited data:
load data
infile 'c:\data\mydata.csv'
into table emp
fields terminated by "," optionally enclosed by '"'
( empno, empname, sal, deptno )
The mydata.csv file may look like this:
10001,"Scott Tiger", 1000, 40
10002,"Frank Naude", 500, 20
Another Sample control file with in-line data formatted as fix length records. The trick is to specify "*" as the name of the data file, and use BEGINDATA to start the data section in the control file.
load data
infile *
replace
into table departments
( dept position (02:05) char(4),
deptname position (08:27) char(20)
)
begindata
COSC COMPUTER SCIENCE
ENGL ENGLISH LITERATURE
MATH MATHEMATICS
POLY POLITICAL SCIENCE


Question 63 :

How can a cross product be created?

Answer :

By selecting the cross products tool and drawing a new group surrounding the base group of the cross products.
Is there a SQL*Unloader to download data to a flat file? (for DBA)
Oracle does not supply any data unload utilities. However, you can use SQL*Plus to select and format your data and then spool it to a file:
set echo off newpage 0 space 0 pagesize 0 feed off head off trimspool on
spool oradata.txt
select col1 || ',' || col2 || ',' || col3
from tab1
where col2 = 'XYZ';
spool off
Alternatively use the UTL_FILE PL/SQL package:
rem Remember to update initSID.ora, utl_file_dir='c:\oradata' parameter
declare
fp utl_file.file_type;
begin
fp := utl_file.fopen('c:\oradata','tab1.txt','w');
utl_file.putf(fp, '%s, %s\n', 'TextField', 55);
utl_file.fclose(fp);
end;
/
You might also want to investigate third party tools like SQLWays from Ispirer Systems, TOAD from Quest, or ManageIT Fast Unloader from CA to help you unload data from Oracle.
Can one load variable and fix length data records? (for DBA)
Yes, look at the following control file examples. In the first we will load delimited data (variable length):
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE load_delimited_data
FIELDS TERMINATED BY "," OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"'
TRAILING NULLCOLS
( data1,
data2
)
BEGINDATA
11111,AAAAAAAAAA
22222,"A,B,C,D,"
If you need to load positional data (fixed length), look at the following control file example:
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE load_positional_data
( data1 POSITION(1:5),
data2 POSITION(6:15)
)
BEGINDATA
11111AAAAAAAAAA
22222BBBBBBBBBB


Question 64 :

Can one skip header records load while loading?

Answer :

Use the "SKIP n" keyword, where n = number of logical rows to skip. Look at this example:
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE load_positional_data
SKIP 5
( data1 POSITION(1:5),
data2 POSITION(6:15)
)
BEGINDATA
11111AAAAAAAAAA
22222BBBBBBBBBB


Question 65 :

Can one modify data as it loads into the database? (for DBA)

Answer :

Data can be modified as it loads into the Oracle Database. Note that this only applies for the conventional load path and not for direct path loads.
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
INTO TABLE modified_data
( rec_no "my_db_sequence.nextval",
region CONSTANT '31',
time_loaded "to_char(SYSDATE, 'HH24:MI')",
data1 POSITION(1:5) ":data1/100",
data2 POSITION(6:15) "upper(:data2)",
data3 POSITION(16:22)"to_date(:data3, 'YYMMDD')"
)
BEGINDATA
11111AAAAAAAAAA991201
22222BBBBBBBBBB990112
LOAD DATA
INFILE 'mail_orders.txt'
BADFILE 'bad_orders.txt'
APPEND
INTO TABLE mailing_list
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ","
( addr,
city,
state,
zipcode,
mailing_addr "decode(:mailing_addr, null, :addr, :mailing_addr)",
mailing_city "decode(:mailing_city, null, :city, :mailing_city)",
mailing_state
)


Question 66 :

Can one load data into multiple tables at once? (for DBA)

Answer :

Look at the following control file:
LOAD DATA
INFILE *
REPLACE
INTO TABLE emp
WHEN empno != ' '
( empno POSITION(1:4) INTEGER EXTERNAL,
ename POSITION(6:15) CHAR,
deptno POSITION(17:18) CHAR,
mgr POSITION(20:23) INTEGER EXTERNAL
)
INTO TABLE proj
WHEN projno != ' '
( projno POSITION(25:27) INTEGER EXTERNAL,
empno POSITION(1:4) INTEGER EXTERNAL
)


Question 67 :

What is the difference between boiler plat images and image items?

Answer :

Boiler plate Images are static images (Either vector or bit map) that you import from the file system or database to use a graphical elements in your form, such as company logos and maps. Image items are special types of interface controls that store and display either vector or bitmap images. Like other items that store values, image items can be either base table items(items that relate directly to database columns) or control items. The definition of an image item is stored as part of the form module FMB and FMX files, but no image file is actually associated with an image item until the item is populate at run time.


Question 68 :

What are the triggers available in the reports?

Answer :

Before report, Before form, After form , Between page, After report.